Monday, May 6, 2013

SOL World History II





• Wealth accumulated from European trade with the Middle East led to the rise of Italian city-states. Wealthy merchants were active civic leaders

• Florence, Genoa and Venice had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets

• These city-states (initially independent city-states governed as republics) served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe

• The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy and literature

• Patrons, wealthy from trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy and education became increasingly secular

• Humanism, supported by wealthy patrons, celebrated the individual and stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture

• Medieval art and literature had focused on the Church and salvation; Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity

• Artistic and literary creativity

Leonardo da Vinci—Mona Lisa and The Last Supper

Michelangelo—Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and David

Petrarch—sonnets, humanistic scholarship

Machiavelli—The Prince—an early modern treatise on government, supported absolute power of the ruler, maintains that the ends justifies the means and advises that one should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary to maintain power

• With the rise of trade, travel and literacy, the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe

• Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas

• The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas

• Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious and secular subjects

• Writers such as Erasmus (The Praise of Folly) and Sir Thomas More (Utopia) merged humanist ideas with Christianity





• New intellectual and artistic ideas developed during the Renaissance

• The Renaissance was the “rebirth” of classical knowledge, and the “birth” of the modern world

• The Renaissance spread from the Italian city-states to northern Europe

• Accomplishments in the visual arts


Leonardo da Vinci

• Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, short essays)


• Accomplishments in intellectual ideas


• For centuries the Roman Catholic Church had little competition in religious thought and action

• Resistance of the church to change led to the Protestant Reformation and the birth of new political and economic institutions

• Wealthy merchants challenged the Church’s view of usury

• German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church

• The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict

• Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict

• Martin Luther created the Lutheran tradition—belief in salvation by faith alone, the Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God

• Luther wrote the 95 theses and began the Protestant Church

• John Calvin created the Calvinist tradition—predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic

• Calvin expanded the Protestant movement

• King Henry VIII began the Anglican tradition—dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome, divorced his wife and broke with Rome, headed the national church of England, appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England

• In Northern Germany, princes converted to Protestantism, ending the authority of the Pope in their states

• The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church

• Conflict between Protestants and Catholic resulted in devastating wars—Thirty Years’ War

• Under Queen Elizabeth I the Anglican Church became a national church throughout the British Isles

• The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism

• In France the Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked)

• Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious conflict to a political conflict

• The Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority

• Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world

• The Inquisition was established to reinforce Catholic doctrine

• Cultural values, traditions and philosophies changed—growth of secularism, growth of individualism, growth of religious tolerance, democratic thought

• Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press

• The Bible was printed in English, French and German which helped to spread the ideas of the Renaissance and Reformation


• Locate some of the major states and empires in the Eastern and Western Hemisphere





Ottoman Empire



Mughal India

Songhai Empire

Incan Empire

Mayan Empire

Aztec Empire

• Location and importance of world religions

Judaism—Europe and Middle East

Christianity—Europe and the Middle East

Islam—parts of Asia, Africa and southern Europe

Hinduism—India and parts of Southeast Asia

Buddhism—East and Southeast Asia

• Trade patterns linked Europe with Asia and Africa

Silk Road—across Asia to the Mediterranean Basin

Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean

Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa

Northern European links with the Black Sea

Western Europe sea and river trade

South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia

• These trade patterns allowed the exchange of ideas and products

Paper, compass, silk and porcelain from China

Textiles, numeral system from India and the Middle East

Scientific transfer—medicine, astronomy, mathematics





• The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments

• Absolute monarchs centralized power and ruled by the concept of divine right

• Absolute monarchs

Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power

Frederick the Great—Prussia, emphasis on military power

Peter the Great—Russia, westernization of Russia


• During the Scientific Revolution the emphasis was on reasoned observation and systematic measurement—changed the way people viewed the world

• Pioneers of the scientific revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus—developed heliocentric theory

Johannes Keplar—planetary motion

Galileo—used the telescope to support heliocentric theory

Isaac Newton—discovered laws of gravity

William Harvey—discovered circulation of the blood

• Importance of the scientific revolution

Emphasis on reason

Formulation of the scientific method

Expansion of scientific knowledge

• Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government

• Enlightenment applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world, stimulated religious tolerance and fueled democratic revolutions around the world

• Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas

Thomas Hobbes—Leviathan—the state must have central authority to manage behavior

John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government—people are sovereign; monarchs are not chosen by God

Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—best form of government includes a separation of powers

Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—government is a contract between rulers and the people

Voltaire—religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state

• Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled the revolutions of France and America

• Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas

• The Constitution of the United States of America and the Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas

• Representative artists, composers and writers

Johann Sebastian Bach

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Eugene Delacroix

Miguel Cervantes

• New forms of art and literature—paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes and living people (portraits), new forms of literature evolved such as Cervantes’ Don Quixote

• New technologies

All weather roads improved year-round transport and trade

New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution)

Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport


• Political democracy rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed

• The foundations of English freedoms included the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law

• The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen

• Development of the rights of Englishmen

Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I

Restoration of the monarchy by Charles II

Development of political parties/faction

Glorious Revolution—William and Mary

Increase of parliamentary power over royal power

English Bill of Rights 1689

• The French Revolution was caused by the influence of Enlightenment ideas as well as the participation of the French in the American Revolution

• Significant events of the French Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

Reign of Terror

• The French Revolution resulted in the end of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and led to the rise of Napoleon

• Napoleon was unsuccessful in his attempt to unify all of Europe under one ruler

• Napoleon’s legacy was the Napoleonic Code and the awakened feelings of national pride and the growth of nationalism

• The influence of the American and French revolutions led to independence for the French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas

• Toussaint L’Overture led a revolution for independence in Haiti

• Simon Bolivar led the way for South American independence




• Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions

• European military, economic and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms

• Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced traditional industries

• Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences

• Forms of imperialism



Spheres of influence

• Imperialism in Asia and Africa

European domination

European conflicts carried to the colonies

Christian missionary efforts

Spheres of influence in China

Suez Canal

East India Company’s domination of Indian states

American opening of Japan to trade

• Responses of colonized people

Armed conflicts (events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)

Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800’s)

• World War I (1914-1918) transformed European and American life, wrecked the economies of Europe and planted the seeds for a second world war

• Causes of World War I

Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps

Nationalistic feelings

Diplomatic failures

Imperialism and the competition over colonies


• Events and leaders of World War I

Assassination of Austria’s Archduke Francis Ferdinand

United States entry into the war

Russia withdraws after revolution

Woodrow Wilson—United States

Kaiser Wilhelm II—Germany

• Outcomes and global effects

Colonies’ participation in the war which increased demands for independence

End of the imperial empires of Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottomans

Enormous cost of the war in lives, property and social disruption

• The Treaty of Versailles ended the war but forced Germany to accept guilt for causing it (as well as the loss of territory and payment of reparations)

• Germany’s military was limited

• Tsarist Russia entered World War I as an absolute monarchy with sharp class divisions between the nobility and peasants

• Grievances of the workers and peasants were not resolved by the Tsar

• Inadequate administration in World War I led to revolution and an unsuccessful provisional government

• A second revolution by the Bolsheviks created the communist state that ultimately became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

• Causes of 1917 revolutions

Defeat in Russo-Japanese War in 1905

Landless peasantry

Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II

Military defeats and high casualties in World War I

• Rise of communism

Bolshevik Revolution and civil war

Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy

Lenin’s successor—Joseph Stalin





• The League of Nations was established after World War I to prevent future wars and bring about international cooperation

• United States did not join due to isolationist policy adopted after the war

• The League failed because it did not have power to enforce its decisions

• The mandate system was created to administer the colonies of defeated powers (WWI) on a temporary basis

• France and Great Britain became mandatory powers in the Middle East

• A period of uneven prosperity in the decade following WWI was followed by worldwide depression

• Causes of worldwide depression

German reparations

Expansion of production capacities and dominance of the United States in the global economy

High protective tariffs

Excessive expansion of credit

Stock Market Crash of 1929

• Impact of world depression

High unemployment in industrial countries

Bank failures and the collapse of credit

Collapse of prices in world trade

Nazi Party’s growing importance in Germany; Nazi Party’s blame of European Jews for economic collapse

Weakening of Western democracies and reducing their ability to challenge the threat of totalitarianism

Unstable political conditions which provided opportunities for the rise of dictators in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy and Japan

• In the Soviet Union communism becomes firmly entrenched under Joseph Stalin

• Stalin’s policies included five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization and secret police—Great Purge

• In Germany Adolf Hitler rose to power as a result of inflation and depression which weakened the democratic government

• Hitler’s policies included anti-Semitism, extreme nationalism, establishment of national socialism and occupation of nearby countries to defy the terms of Treaty of Versailles

• In Italy Benito Mussolini created fascism and resolved to restore the glory of Rome—invaded Ethiopia

• During the interwar period, Japan, under the leadership of Emperor Hirohito and Hideki Tojo established an aggressive and imperialist regime dominated by militarism

• In order to acquire raw materials for industrialization Japan invaded Korea, Manchuria, and China

• Economic and political causes of World War II

Aggression by totalitarian powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)


Failures of the Treaty of Versailles

Weakness of the League of Nations

Tendencies toward isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States

• Major events of the war (1939-1945)

German invasion of Poland

Fall of France

Battle of Britain

German invasion of the Soviet Union

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe)

Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

• Major leaders of the war

Franklin Roosevelt—U.S. president

Harry Truman—U.S. president after the death of Roosevelt

Dwight Eisenhower—U.S. general (Europe)

Douglas MacArthur—U.S. general (Asia)

George Marshall—U.S. general

Winston Churchill—British prime minister

Joseph Stalin—Soviet dictator

Adolf Hitler—Nazi dictator of Germany

Hideki Tojo—Japanese general

Hirohito—Emperor of Japan

• There had been a climate of hatred against Jews in Europe and Russia for centuries—this hatred led to the Holocaust and genocide

• Genocide is the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural group

• Hitler’s belief in the “master race” combined with his totalitarian and nationalist policies led to the development of the Final Solution—extermination of all Jews in Europe

• Other examples of 20th century genocide

Armenians by the leaders of the Ottoman Empire

Peasants, government and military leaders in the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin

Educated artists, technicians, government officials, monks and minorities by Pol Pot in Cambodia

Tutsi minority by the Hutu in Rwanda

Muslims and Croats by Bosnian Serbs in former Yugoslavia

• Outcomes of World War II

European powers’ loss of empires

Establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the Soviet Union

War crimes trials

Division of Europe—Iron Curtain

Establishment of the United Nations

Marshall Plan

Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Pact

• A democratic government was installed in West Germany and West Berlin

• Germany and Berlin were divided among the four Allied Powers

• West Germany emerged as an economic power in postwar Europe

• Efforts for reconstruction of Japan

U.S. occupation of Japan under MacArthur’s administration

Democracy and economic development

Elimination of Japanese offensive military capabilities; US guarantee of Japan’s security

Emergence of Japan as a dominant economy in Asia




Cold War

• Competition between the United States and the USSR laid the foundation for the Cold War

• The Cold War influenced the policies of the United States and the USSR towards other nations and conflicts around the world

• After World War II the United States pursued a policy of containment—prevention of the spread of communism. This policy included the development of regional alliances against Soviet and Chinese aggression

• Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948)

The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe

Rivalry between the United States and the USSR

Democracy and the free enterprise system v. dictatorship and communism

President Truman and the Policy of Containment

Eastern Europe—Soviet satellite nations; the Iron Curtain

• Characteristics of the Cold War (1948-1989)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Warsaw Pact

Korean Conflict

Vietnam War

Berlin and the Berlin Wall

Cuban Missile Crisis

Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence

• Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

Soviet economic collapse

Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries

Tearing down of the Berlin Wall

Breakup of the USSR

Expansion of NATO

• Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China

Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war

Chiang Kai-shek—Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)

Mao Zedong—Communist China (Chinese mainland)

Continuing conflict between the two Chinas

Communist China’s participation in the Korean conflict

• Conflicts and revolutionary movements in Vietnam

Role of French imperialism

Leadership of Ho Chi Minh

Vietnam as a divided nation

Influence of the policy of containment

The United States involvement in the Vietnam War

Vietnam as a united communist country today

• British policies and the demand for self-rule led to the rise of the Indian independence movement, resulting in the creation of new states in the Indian sub-continent

• Mohandas Gandhi led the Indian independence movement through a policy of civil disobedience and passive resistance to British rule

• After independence India split along Hindu and Muslim lines—Pakistan became a Muslim state (West) and Bangladesh became a Muslim state (east) while India remained a Hindu state

• The charter of the United Nations guaranteed colonial populations the right to self-determination

• Independence movements in Africa challenged European imperialism

• Factors in the African independence movements include—pride in African cultures and heritage, resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation

• Great Britain, France, Belgium and Portugal lost colonies in peaceful and violent revolutions

• Cold War rivalries between the super powers influenced African events

• Examples of independence movements and subsequent developments

West Africa—peaceful transition

Algeria—war for independence from France

Kenya—violent struggle against British rule led by Jomo Kenyatta

South Africa—Black South Africans struggle against apartheid

• In the Middle East the mandate system established after World War I was phased out after World War II—with the end of the mandates, new states were created

• French mandates in the Middle East were Syria and Lebanon, British mandates were Jordan and Palestine—part of Palestine becomes independent as the new state of Israel

• Both developed and developing nations face many challenges including migrations, ethnic and religious conflict and new technologies

• Migrations—refugees resulting from international conflicts, migrations of “guest workers” in European cities

• Ethnic and religious conflicts—Middle East, Northern Ireland, Balkans, Africa, Asia

• Impact of new technology—widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communication, genetic engineering and bioethics

• Contrasts between developed and developing nations

Geographic locations of major countries

Economic conditions—poverty, development

Social challenges—literacy, access to health care, famine

Population size and rate of growth

Environmental challenges—pollution, loss of habitat, ozone depletion

• Free market economies produce rising standards of living and an expanding middle class, which produces growing demands for political freedoms and individual rights. Recent examples include Taiwan and South Korea

• The countries of the world are increasingly dependent on each other for raw materials, markets, and financial resources, although there is still a difference between developed and developing nations

• Economic interdependence

Role of rapid transportation, communication and computer networks

Rise and influence of multinational corporations

Changing role of international boundaries

Regional integration—European Union

Trade agreements—NAFTA, World Trade Organization

International organizations—United Nations, International Monetary Fund